Art History 334
Survey of Italian Renaissance Art
The Slide Lists: Page Three
31 March to 4 April
Raphael was born in Urbino, small
city-state in southeastern Italy not far from the Adriatic coast.
Raphael and Perugino
Raphael in Florence
Rome: Bramante, Michelangelo, and Raphael
Donato Bramante (1444-1514)
Born in Urbino, he was a cousin of Raphael, whom he helped to come to
Rome. Worked in Milan--we saw Santa Maria delle Grazie in class. Moved to
Rome ca. 1499
Here are two sites (made originally for a course on Rome in the Age of
Bernini) that might be of interest as background for Rome:
April 7 to 11
Michelangelo in Rome (again)
Tomb of Julius II. Probably originally intended for the crossing
of St. Peter's basilica. Project begun 1505, finally completed in 1545
(Pope Julius died in 1513) and located not in St. Peter's but in the much
farther removed church of San Pietro in Vincoli (St. Peter's in Chains). About
half of the sculptural decoration is by other artists. Four sculptures:
Moses (1513-1516 and 1542-1545); now located on the finished tomb in
San Pietro in Vincoli.
- The Captive called the
>Dying Slave, 1505-1506 and 1513-1515.
- The Captive called the
Rebellious Slave, 1513-1515.
- The Captive called the Crossed-Leg Slave, 1527-1528.
Sistine Chapel Ceiling. Frescoes in the Sistine Chapel (not
physically part of the church of St. Peter's), in what is now Vatican
City. 1508-1512. Scenes to be shown include:
- The Separation of Light and Darkness
- The Creation of Adam
- The Creation of Eve
- Temptation and Fall
- The Flood
Raphael: Paintings by him and his workshop in the Papal
Raphael in the Vatican Apartments, continued
Stanza del Eliodoro: 1511-1514. Miraculous stories of Divine
The Expulsion of Heliodoros. This is from the Book of
Maccabees. Thief Heliodoros attempts to steal the Temple of Jerusalem's
treasure; the priest prays for help which arrives in the form of avenging
angels which sweep H. and his henchmen out of the Temple. Witnessed by
Pope Julius, Raphael, and Giulio Romano (who will become R's artistic
successor in Rome after R's death in 1520 at age 37.)
The Liberation of St. Peter from Prison. An angel frees St. Peter from
his prison, putting the guards to sleep. Consider: miraculous light of the
angel; the evocation of the Resurrection of Christ.
The Mass at Bolsena. A Bohemian priest of the 13th century could not
bring himself to believe in the Transubstantiation (the presence of the
body and blood of Christ in the wafer and wine of the Mass); he is
persuaded by the appearance of blood driping off the wafer, which formed
the shape of the cross on the altar cloth. The cloth was kept as a relic
in the Cathedral of Orvieto, which Pope Julius II had adored personally.
- Also for Pope Julius II: The
Sistine Madonna. 1513. Commissioned by
Pope Julius II for the church of St. Sisto, Piacenza, in gratitude for the
help of the city in his war against the French.
The Villa Farnesina: Baldassare Peruzzi and Raphael
On the Villa Farnesina which, as you know, was built for the richest
man in the world, Agostino Chigi, and was only later bought by the Farnese
family (you will meet them in the Baroque class next fall).
Triumph of Galatea 1511. Most of the frescoes were actually by Peruzzi
and Sebastiano del Piombo, but R's is the one that is remembered. Galatea
is a sea-nymph fleeing (although there's no sense of danger) from the
amorous pursuit of Polyphemus, a cyclops who is hopelessly in love with
her. Note the dolphin-powered shell-ship.
of Baldassare Castiglione 1515. Again the Mona Lisa pose, but here the
effects are more subtle. BC was a noted intellectual and writer, whose
most famous work is "The Courtier", based upon discussions amid the
courtiers of Urbino about the proper education and behavior of the modern
civilized man or woman. Here R (ignore comments at link about debates over
attributiion) has shown us BC as the epitome of the courtier, dressed soberly
but elegantly in black. He regards us calmly, with all of the modest
assurance of one who is the essence of "sprezzatura."
Donna Velata. The Veiled Woman 1515. I showed this in class in
comparison with one of
Bronzino's Mannerist portraits of Eleonora de
Toledo. I also mentioned that the warm, soft handling of the figure
has inspired some to think that R may be reflecting here knowledge of
Transfiguration. 1517/1520. St. Peter, St. James and St. John
accompany Christ to the top of a mountain. Suddenly Moses and Elijah
appeared. The voice of God: "This is my beloved Son in Whom I am well
pleased." Commissioned by Cardinal Giulio de'Medici for the Cathedral of
Narbonne, France. R. completed the top portion and part (the left of the
lower. Finished by his associate, Giulio Romano. R. died on Good Friday,
April 6, 1520. At his request, he was buried in the Pantheon and the
partially-finished painting was hung over his bier. Raphael's essentially
ends the High Renaissance in Rome.
The Last of Michelangelo: Florence and Rome
- The Medici Chapel--also called the New Sacristy. San Lorenzo,
Florence, 1519-1534. Of the images, know the general view, the tombs of
Giuliano de'Medici and Lorenzo de'Medici, and about the architecture.
- The Last Judgment. Fresco, sistine Chapel, in what is now Vatican
- The Capitoline Hill, Rome. Replanned by Michelangelo in 1546.
- Michelangelo's Project for St. Peter's. Incomplete at his death in
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