Rome in the Age of Bernini

Outline for Lectures 3 and 4

No, I don't expect you to know all of this in all of its details. What I expect is that you will be able to discuss a bit about the various stages of the renovation of Rome from about 1500 to 1564, as outlined by these projects. There is, of course, much that I've had to pass by, and we will take a glimpse at some projects (Bramante's Belvedere, Palazzo Farnese, Peruzzi's Roman palaces, Villa Giulia, and a few more) as we look at developments in the Baroque.

Donato Bramante : the first architect of the High Renaissance in Rome

Right now we are interested in Bramante's Tempietto Built by the church of San Pietro in Montorio, this small central-plan structure marks the spot where St. Peter is traditionally thought to have been martyred. Paid for by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain, which is noteworthy here as a measure of the importance of the location. Date is a bit uncertain, but from the beginning of the 16th century.

Associations here: ancient Roman central-plan temple; central-plan mausoleum; martyrial shrine; evocation in size of reliquaries (these, remember, were small sculptures containing an important relic of a deceased saint or other type of holy person)

Design of exterior decoration as well as basic plan based on ancient Roman vocabulary, yet used here in non-ancient manner: the colonnade with the balustrade, for example.

Raphael and Bernini : Raphael's Architectural Interests and The Chigi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome

"The unity of the arts": Raphael begins the study and practice of architecture later in life (dies in 1520 at the age of 37). He is involved with four projects of interest for the Baroque:

Michelangelo and Capitoline Hill

Michelangelo in 1538 begins the renovation of Capitoline Hill--in Italian, the Campidoglio, seat of Roman government since antiquity. This is the first renovation of a public square in Rome, probably also since antiquity. This project, not quite finished by the time of Michelangelo's death in 1564, is the prototype in ambition if not design for many other such projects in the 17th century.

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